Connect on Twitter
May31

Connect on Twitter

I appreciate all who have read my contributions here over the years. I know there hasn’t been much new content in the last year. That’s not because there’s been none, but rather because I’ve become more active on Twitter. You can find me there @addictiondocMD. I don’t know if there will be any new content here after this. Again, I thank all who have read what I’ve written here and wish the best to all those generous people who have written back, commented, and shared their thoughts and their lives with me. God Bless,...

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What Did He Die Of?

A colleague asked a group of us Addiction Medicine specialists if we had any guesses of what killed a patient who died in his care. If reading a clinical description of a death or the thinking that doctors do after a death to improve care might bother you, stop reading. If not, read on. The patient was in his late 20’s and had been treated for addiction involving opioids with medical withdrawal. Following the withdrawal, his treatment team implanted naltrexone, a long acting blocker of the opioid receptor meant to protect him from overdoses should he resume use of an opioid. He was described as stable on these monthly implants for 5 months after withdrawal and was found dead with no drug paraphernalia around him. At autopsy, there were no physical findings except a white power in his mouth, which turned out to be clonidine, a medication used to counter the anxious activation of opioid withdrawal or stimulant intoxication. Post-mortem toxicology showed he had a high level of naltrexone, higher than usually seen in fact. He was negative for all opioids tested including fentanyl, sufentanyl and carfentanyl. He was positive for amphetamines. The group gave a number of different theories. He had used amphetamine, overshot the mark, became nervous, took the clonidine to calm down which increased a specific electrical pause in his heart, that some amphetamines also increase, and this caused his heart to stop. Or he had taken a heretofore unknown opioid (probably a new, currently undetectable, even more powerful fentanyl analog) which displaced all the naltrexone, raising the level, and stopping his breathing. Or he had used cocaine long enough ago so that it wasn’t any longer in his system, but cocaine’s effect on the heart lasted long enough to interact with what he was taking to cause the sudden stoppage of his heart. All good theories. Complex and speculative, but good theories non the less. But my mind didn’t go down this path. I didn’t think about what stopped his heart in the last moment. I didn’t think about what combination of substances could interact in what way to do what damage. I didn’t think about that, because I don’t see the point. It’s a wonderful academic exercise, but if we know, what will we change? Will we warn people not to use clonidine if they are going to use amphetamine? Will we warn people not to use any new opioids from China until everyone in their neighborhood has tried them and survived? At that point in the life of someone with addiction, when they are using what they need to use to feel normal,...

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Why Should We Use Genetic Testing in Addiction Treatment?
Feb16

Why Should We Use Genetic Testing in Addiction Treatment?

I’m sorry that I have to use an almost clichéd literary trick to explain this. First, let’s explain why not to use genetic testing. If you believe addiction is caused by a weak will, a spiritual emptiness or a moral problem, there’s really no point in doing genetic testing. But on the other hand, there’d also be no reason for doing addiction treatment. Spiritual guidance is free and freely available to all. The law of the land should promote good behavior and lead people willing to change to the great number of spiritual teachers around, so there’s no reason to spend money on addiction treatment. Just keep up the war on drugs, and this will all sort itself out. The insurance companies love this explanation. On the other hand, if you believe that drugs are the only cause for addiction, there’s really no point in doing genetic testing. Under that assumption we’re all the same, and, through bad decisions or poor social policy, some of us will get exposed to addictive drugs, which change our brains and cause addiction. But on the other hand, if drugs were THE cause of addiction, we’d have no explanation for compulsive gambling, compulsive overeating, sex addiction, etc. We’d have to limit our understanding of the problem of addiction to drugs, and as that focused understanding has not led to a solution for the last 100 years, we’d have to wonder if it’s the correct understanding. Again, we would need to focus on the war on drugs, prevent addiction by preventing exposure to drugs, and keep people with addiction drug free until their brains go back to normal. If you believe that, the answer to addiction lies not in medical or psychological treatment, but in living in a monastery for about 3 years, free of charge. The insurance companies love this explanation too. Now if you don’t believe that addiction is a moral problem and you don’t believe it’s caused by drugs, then you’re left with a real conundrum. What the hell causes addiction? Well to answer that we’d have to first define what addiction is. The American Society of Addiction Medicine has published a definition of addiction, which can be summarized in its short form: Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors. Notice that addiction isn’t limited to drugs, and that the illness comes first; it causes symptoms; and it’s the symptoms that cause the characteristic...

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The Kissinger Cross and Beginner’s Mind
Jul22

The Kissinger Cross and Beginner’s Mind

The Kissinger Cross I learned about the Kissinger cross from an economist named Jim Rickards (twitter: @JamesGRickards). You may have guessed that the Kissinger Cross was named after former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, but you might be struggling to figure out what it has to do with addiction. No, it isn’t that it’s his cross to bear. It’s something else all together. Kissinger said that when we enter a new situation we have all the options that exist but we don’t have any information on which option is best. As we learn more about a situation our knowledge rises, but with that knowledge comes a decrease in the options available. Some just don’t look good with that new knowledge. So he said there are two lines to be drawn as time moves on, the down sloping line of options and the up sloping line of information. The more we learn, the fewer options we have, so in the end, we know everything but can’t do anything. What the Kissinger Cross is, is the point at which the two lines cross. We no longer have all the options but we still have a lot, and we don’t know enough, but we know a good bit. It’s a chancy thing making decisions with incomplete information, but life is a chancy thing. What Secretary Kissinger gave us was a system with which to figure out when to act that is graphical, at least somewhat objective, and can be put on paper for clarity of thought. It’s a good idea, but what does it have to do with addiction? Well, it has to do with everything, but that’s not the point of your question, is it? You want to know what the Kissinger Cross has to do with the problem of addiction in our society. Well, it can provide us with a solution, but only if we use it correctly. To illustrate that, you’ll have to come with me on a little thought experiment. A World Without Addiction So imagine that we live in a world with no addiction, or, since you won’t be able to imagine that, just imagine that we’re not from this world. We arrive here and see addiction for the first time. We don’t know anything about it; it’s a completely new situation. We can do anything about it we want. We can shoot people, give them lemonade, pet the dog, or go home. We have all the options in the world, but we don’t know what to do. We’ve never seen addiction before. We don’t know what it is, what causes it, what it costs. We just know we’re...

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Linearity vs Cycles
Jul13

Linearity vs Cycles

Take a deep breath. Now hold it. Without letting it out, take another deep breath. You can’t do it can you? Now go back to breathing normally before you pass out. The point of all that was to show you in a visceral way that at the core of your being are cycles, in this case breathing in and breathing out. Cycles are all around us. The entire universe revolves on cycles: day and night, the seasons, the moon, and even most important for your immediate survival, breathing in and breathing out. Problems don’t arise from cycles, though we often look at the nadir of the cycle and say that it’s problem. It’s not; it’s just nature. The problems are invented in our own human cortex when we deny that cycles are necessary or we imagine were in a different part of the cycle from where we really are. An example of that is our country’s monetary policy. It’s based loosely on the Keynesian philosophy of stimulating the economy in a downturn and withdrawing that stimulation when the economy is an upswing. Our modern central bankers are very good at stimulating downturns but seem not to know how to take their foot off the gas during an upswing.  Their goal of a world with no recessions is like the house of a hoarder. At first he feels wealthy because he has so much stuff, but soon he isn’t able to move around to get anything done. By believing in linearity and not allowing the natural cleansing cycle of recession/expansion we have cluttered our economy and made it less productive. Another example is our national policy on addiction. For a hundred years this country has treated addiction like a set of voluntary behaviors that can be changed with appropriate legal and economic disincentives. This has led to endless repetition of a pattern of moving from one drug crisis to another only to find the next as soon as we solve the last. Only in the last 10 years, and especially the last two, have the leaders of this country come to call addiction an actual disease. And unfortunately it looks like it might be too little, too late. Strauss and Howe’s The Fourth Turning describe how national moods change every generation lasting approximately 15 to 25 years. They tell us that these moods repeat every 4 cycles like the seasons. Their work suggests that since the world financial crisis of 2008 we have left the autumn unraveling and entered the winter crisis period. Such periods are marked by increasing social order, lower crime, increasing government power, public condemnation of substance use, and in general would be consistent with the pull away from the idea of addiction...

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